Association for Free Research and International Cooperation

US sanctions against African countries

28.07.2019
Article from AFRIC Editorial
Many of the US major sanctions have been directed towards Russia, Cuba and Iran, but they have also affected, large international companies and some African states. The types of sanctions that have been imposed by the US are sometimes called "secondary sanctions." This is primarily due to the US role in the global economy and financial system, as well as control over the main global reserve currency - the US dollar, which allows to legally substantiating the use of fines against non-residents of the United States for violating sanctions regimes. At the same time, such cases are perceived in a negative way by the EU, as well as other countries.

Sudan

Relations between the US and Sudan became strained after the US accused Sudan of supporting terrorist organizations, including Palestinian and Lebanese terrorists. In 1993, Sudan was declared a state sponsoring terrorism. After that, the United States imposed sanctions on the country in the field of trade, the financial sector, and economic sanctions. Sanctions were also followed in connection with Sudan’s support for Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, participation in the Pan-Arab Islamic Conference, and the provision of shelter to international terrorists.

Types of sanctions:

  • Restrictions on trade;
  • Ban on conducting transactions. (The sanctions: lifted at the end of 2017)

Ivory Coast

In 2011, the United States imposed sanctions against Côte d’Ivoire President Laurent Gbagbo, his wife and supporters, due to the fact that the US authorities did not accept the cancellation of elections in some cities of the country. As a result, Gbagbo was selected for a second term. Traditionally, a ban was imposed on entry into the United States, and the assets and operations of the persons against whom the sanctions were directed.

Types of sanctions:

  • Freezing of property assets of individuals and organizations;
  • Prohibiting the entry of certain individuals into the US (sanctions lifted in 2016).

Democratic Republic of Congo

Sanctions against the Democratic Republic of the Congo were introduced in 2006 and then extended several times. UN Special Envoy Margo Wallström stated in 2010 that government forces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo are likely to be guilty of rape and murder. As with other countries, a ban was imposed on entry into the United States, and the assets and operations of the persons against whom the sanctions were directed.

Types of sanctions:

  • Freezing of property assets of individuals and organizations;
  • Prohibit the entry of certain individuals (sanctions: lifted in 2016)

South Sudan

The United States imposed sanctions on three individuals and six companies for involvement in the conflict in South Sudan in 2018.

The sanctions were imposed on Israeli Israel Ziv (Israel Ziv) and citizens of South Sudan Obak William Olavo and Gregory Vasili. The United States is considered to be involved in actions to undermine peace, stability and security in South Sudan. Ziv and Olavo came under sanctions for leading companies registered in South Sudan and Israel, which are also involved in the conflict in South Sudan.

Types of sanctions:

  • Freezing the property assets of individuals and organizations; still effective till date.

Liberia

In 2004, the administration of US President George W. Bush imposed sanctions against Liberia, as the policy of the former leader of this country, Charles Taylor and his supporters, was described as threatening US foreign policy.

Now Taylor is in prison, where he is serving a 50-year sentence for war crimes and crimes against humanity.

The decree on the lifting of economic sanctions from Liberia was signed in 2015 by President Barack Obama. It is noted that in his letter to Congress, Obama stressed that Liberia made great progress in building democracy after the end of the civil war in 2003. In addition, he praised the orderly development of political, administrative and economic institutions in the state.

Types of sanctions:

  • Freezing the property assets of individuals and organizations, lifted in 2015

Zimbabwe

Washington imposed sanctions on Zimbabwe in 2003. They affected about 120 people, including Mugabe himself and his family members who are banned from entering the United States; US companies are not allowed to do business with legal entities associated with the Zimbabwean leadership.

The past elections and the change of the country’s leadership did not become the basis for lifting the sanctions.

Types of sanctions:

  • Freezing of property assets of individuals and organizations;
  • Restrictions on trade;
  • Prohibition of transactions;
  • ban on the supply of weapons;
  • Ban on financial assistance, investment.

These sanctions are still effective today.

Central African Republic

Sanctions against the CAR were imposed in 2014 on the basis of a threat to national security due to the situation in this country. Washington indicates that inter-religious strife, massacres, and recruitment of children into armed formations occurred in the African state, and this aggravates the situation in the region and throughout the world.

Types of sanctions:

  • Freezing of property assets of individuals and organizations;
  • Ban on the supply of weapons.

Sanctions are still effective today.

crude oil barrels with yellow label

Burundi

US President Barack Obama signed a decree that imposed sanctions against four top officials of Burundi, where ethnic unrest continues.

The sanctions list includes the head of the defense department, the deputy head of the national police, as well as the former defense minister and the head of intelligence. The sanctions were imposed because of the involvement of the defendants in the list of human rights violations.

Types of sanctions:

  • Freezing the property assets of individuals and organizations till date.

Somalia

Sanctions against Somalia were first introduced in 2010 due to the “deteriorating security and violence situation in Somalia”, “export of charcoal from Somalia” and “acts of piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia”.

Types of sanctions:

  • Freezing of property assets of individuals and organizations, still effective today

Libya

In 2011, the United States imposed trade and financial sanctions against Libya. The restrictions included a number of state-owned banks and companies that were prohibited from doing business in the United States. Sanctions were imposed to counter the regime of Muammar Gaddafi.

Types of sanctions:

  • Freezing of property assets of individuals and organizations;
  • Prohibition of certain persons from entering;
  • Ban on conducting transactions.

The effect of sanctions: In 2018, sanctions against members of the Gaddafi family and members of the last Libyan Government were renewed.

Article from AFRIC editorial

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