SOUTH AFRICA AND THE APARTHEID
After South Africa’s independence on May 31st, 1910, some British stayed back forming the white minority and continued controlling the economy under the “Apartheid” system. Apartheid which originates from the Dutch-developed Afrikaans language means “separateness or apartness”, was a system of governance in where the white minority and Indians dominantly controlled the country’s resources, wealth and administrative positions while segregating the black majority. In 1942, Nelson who was against the Apartheid under the African National Congress (ANC) allied with other political parties against the Apartheid and after a series of detentions for various reasons; he was finally given life jail sentence in 1964 with many others and the ANC banned. Protests continued and were aggressively counteracted with military and police action, resulting death squads and massacres. After Mandela’s release in 1990 and restoration of the ANC, he was election President in 1994; it changed South Africa’s fate turning it towards peace and equality.
- The post-Apartheid period
The post-Apartheid period began under Nelson Mandela as President whose main priority was to abolish the idea of white superiority and restore peace. As a result of all the violence during the Apartheid period, a majority of South Africans had just basic or no education and could barely manage plantation and mining jobs after.
Most often, mine workers are lowly and not regularly paid and it results into violence, as was the case prior to the Marikana massacre in 2012 amongst others.
There have been traces of corruption in South especially in the police and administrative sector where individuals use the country’s resources for private gain and collect bribe.
South Africa’s most evident problem has been unemployment. Foreigners who have received good education have always stood a better chance of employment. This has been highly criticized by South Africans and resulted to the March 2008 xenophobia attacks on foreigners.
There has been a great improvement in infrastructural development. This was seen as South Africa hosted the 1995 Rugby World, 2003 ICC Cricket World Cup and 2010 FIFA World Cup.
Due to great infrastructure, South Africa is considered one of the most developed countries in the world and attracts a lot of foreign investors.
RWANDA AND THE GENOCIDE SUPPORTED BY THE WEST
More than 80% of Rwandans are Hutus and the rest Tutsis who actually all speak the two same native languages, French and English. The minority Tutsis held power and government positions while the Hutu majority was discriminated against. The Hutus forcefully took over the monarchy from the Tutsis in 1959 and later on voted it out. Unlike other African conflicts which are caused by Religion, Language and other ethnic differences, the Hutu-Tutsi conflict is caused by social class mentality, the cattle rearing Tutsis perceived to be wealthier and higher in social status than the farming Hutus. The Rwandan war was between the Hutu-led government and the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) made of Tutsis rebels led by Paul Kagame. Juvenal Habyarimana the then Rwandan president was later shot dead in his airplane alongside Burundian president Cyprien Ntaryamira by rebels group in 1994. The genocide was a mass slaughter of Tutsis about 500,000 to 1000,000 by the members of the majority Hutu dominated government who wanted to take over power alongside Rwandan citizens who supported the system between April to June 1994.
- 25 Years after the Genocide
Two and a half decades after the devastating loss of lives, separation of families, migration of many people away and physical/mental damage, Rwanda has carried out many reforms.
The very first step was to foster reconciliation and social justice between the Hutus and the Tutsis. It was promoted by World Vision Organization which has been successfully achieved because the Government embraced the idea.
For the last five years, Rwanda has been working on a program to reduce poverty, create better system of education, introduce health insurance and promote private sector large/small scale business by the present government has been successful; confirmed by many banks in Kigali.
More Political Parties have been formed with members from both ethnicities which is a great sign of social integration and peace.
Many new educational facilities have been built both by foreign organizations and the present government led by President Paul Kagame. He has digitalized the education system making it possible for students to do online studies and use computers in the process of studies especially schools for digital technology.
The government is investing in technology instead of the African method of consumption as a structure for creation for the creation of digital technology is currently going on.
Since Rwanda has little or no minerals and more of natural life, the government has invested more in Tourism.
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO
After independence from Belgium, DR Congo has experienced countless wars, political system challenges, leadership challenges, diseases, unrests and hunger which caused many. Since independence, power has moved from Kasavubu, Mobutu, Laurant Kabila to Joseph Kabila and finally experienced DR Congo experienced the first democratic transition in 2019 as Felix Tshisekedi was sworn as president after winning. Conflict in Congo has been centered on the control of rich natural and mineral resources which has led to two civil wars between the government and rebel groups, death, hunger, human rights violations and diseases especially the 2018 Ebola outbreak.
President Felix Tshesekedi’s first moves were to contain Ebola within the first three months of his leadership, restore peace, improve on the social welfare of his citizens and create employment by reorganizing the economy of his country.
- LIBERIA AND INABILITY TO ERADICATE DISEASES AND EXPLOIT NATURAL RESOURCES.
Liberia is perceived to be one of the poorest and underdeveloped countries in the world though rich in many unexploited natural resources such as diamonds, natural rubber, iron ore, gold and huge log/timber forest. Fertile land for agriculture is also available but like many other African countries, the country has been devastated by two civil wars, hunger, and poor infrastructure, high corruption rate, low availability of social amenities, global volatility and Diseases; have made the country to be referred to as “under the spell of the Resource Curse”.
Liberia’s biggest challenge has been health especially the Ebola Virus outbreak since 2014 till present that has been very been very devastating for the country. Considering the fatality of the disease, it has wiped out many Liberians and has also scared away many foreigners especially investors increasing the rate of poverty. But since 2018, George Weah the President has diverted the country’s wealth and resources towards digitalizing the education system, a ten year plan to improve on the educational conditions and elimination of the Ebola virus which. All these have been so far successful and in progress.
Article from AFRIC editorial
Credit image/google images.